Thursday, 7 September 2017


The Long homostyle Primrose
and its discovery by my parents
 


Botanists and lovers of flowers will be familiar with the two well-known heterostyle types of Primula vulgaris, commonly known as the Primrose, which are: pin-eyed and thrum-eyed. In figure 1 we see (a) the former type, where the stigma is positioned above the level of the anthers, causing floral visitors to first contact the stigma before removing pollen from the anthers, and (b) the latter type, where the stigma is recessed below the level of the anthers, causing floral visitors to first contact the anthers before the stigma:
J. L. Crosby

This spatial separation of the anthers and stigma serves to reduce self-fertilization between male (anthers) and female (stigma) function'. With the pin-type flower, pollination occurs when they are visited by a large, diverse fauna (e.g. bees), whereas with the thrum-type flower, pollination occurs typically through visits by moths and butterflies. 

But there is another type of Primrose flower - the third type: which is the 'long homostyle' - figure 2 - where the anther and stigma are in close proximity to each other, enabling self-fertilization instead of relying on visiting insects for pollination.
 J. L. Crosby

With the exception of botanists, most people do not know about the long homostyle type because, to date, it is has been found only in a very small area of Somerset, and in another very small area in the Chilterns. The long homostyle Primula vulgaris, previously unknown to Charles Darwin and botanists, was first found by my late parents, Marian and David Greenham.

Marian and David made the unexpected discovery in the spring of 1939, at which time they were engaged to be married. Remarkably unselfishly - for while Marian lived and worked in the village of West Camel, Somerset, David had been living away, studying at Cambridge - they spent almost all of their Easter holiday collecting many samples of primroses in Sparkford Wood, Somerset, just two miles from their respective, permanent homes in West Camel. And they did this to help a Cambridge University botany graduate friend of my father's, Jack L Crosby, who, as part of his work for his PhD, was researching the distribution of the pin-eyed and thrum-eyed types of Primrose in many parts of the country, enlisting the help of many friends and colleagues around the country. Little did Crosby suspect that a significant discovery was about to be made. And how incredibly lucky it was that Marian and David happened to live near one of the only two now known locations of long homostyles, and that Sparkford Wood was chosen for sampling work!

In published articles, Dr. Jack Crosby explained that my father had found the first homostyle primroses and that my mother, then known as Marian Llewelyn Jones, had sent all the samples to him at Cambridge. I recall my parents telling me about this, except that they said that it was actually my mother who found the first long homostyle.

Many years later, BBC Television twice screened a 30-minute nature programme centred on this discovery. It was introduced by Dr. David Bellamy, and presented by Dr. Crosby, and, much to my parents' amusement, included filmed sequences with actors portraying my courting parents strolling romantically through woodland, occasionally stooping to pick primroses, and all the while dressed impracticably in fine clothes of the period.

My father came to know Jack Crosby while he, too, was at Cambridge University also studying botany.  They both completed their PhDs after the end of the Second World War. Jack Crosby made a career out of botanical research, securing a post at Durham University, while my father worked as a scientist at East Malling Research Station, Kent, becoming Head of the Fruit Nutrition Section.

References

Charles Darwin (1862). On the two forms, or dimorphic condition, in the species of Primula, and on their remarkable sexual relations. Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnaean Society (Botany).

Charles Darwin (1877). The Different Forms of Flowers on Plants of the Same Species. London: Murray.

J L Crosby (April 17, 1940). High Proportions of Homostyle Plants in Populations of Primula vulgaris. Nature, April 27, 1940, Vol. 145. (And references to this in some subsequent articles published elsewhere).


Written in fond memory of my parents, Marian and David Greenham, who married at West Camel in November 1939, and lived in East Malling from 1946 until their deaths in 1991 and 2007 respectively.

From left: Robert, Marian, David, Stella (my sister) (c.1960)

Tuesday, 1 May 2012

Maidstone Music Festival

Our Maidstone Music Festival is now in its fifth year and continues to grow steadily in strength and popularity. Here is the new brochure for 2012:

Saturday, 11 June 2011

MMF

Maidstone Music Festival is now in its fourth year, being an annual event which has become a useful and enjoyable addition to pre-existing opportunities for amateur musicians in the Maidstone area of Kent.

My wife, Sue, taught piano in Maidstone for many years and she always thought it ridiculous that the county town of Kent was one of the few large towns lacking its own educative festival for amateur musicians. Many other music teachers she knew felt the same way, and so it is for this reason that in 2007 she decided to organise one herself. The inaugural festival, mmf08, took place at the end of November 2008 and was very well received by participants, adjudicators and sponsors. The festival was also visited by a representative of the British and International Federation of Festivals for Music, Dance and Speech, and received praising comments; our festival became affiliated to the Federation shortly afterwards.


This festival is different from anything that previously occurred in Maidstone in that, like many festivals elsewhere, it provides opportunities for amateur musicians of all ages and levels of ability to perform individually to an audience and to receive educative adjudication from highly qualified musicians. All entrants are awarded a certificate, classified according to merit, and a personal written adjudication on their performance. The element of competition is kept to a minimum in order to encourage performers to learn from one another. There are both competitive and non-competitive classes, and the festival provides a friendly and supportive platform for musicians to share in the excitement of making music. Maidstone Music Festival, a non-profit organisation, now promotes a prestigious annual event which gives pleasure and real value to performers and listeners alike, and the most frequently heard comments from participants are that they had found our festival not only educative but also entertaining and great fun!


Encouraged by our initial success, we expanded the scope of the festival by adding categories - Plucked Strings; Accordion, Concertina, Harmonica; and Mixed Ensembles – to those of Piano, Bowed strings, Woodwind/Brass/Recorders, and Singing, and also by extending the range of classes. This year we are introducing, among other things, non-competitive classes for family ensembles within each category. In common with similar festivals, however, we have had disappointingly few entries from players of wind instruments and we are at pains to do what we can to stimulate greater interest.


Maidstone Music Festival 2011 will be held at Invicta Grammar School on the weekend of 26/27 November, 2011, with a concert on the evening of Saturday 3 December.

Friday, 27 May 2011

Maidstone Music Festival Friends

mmf SUPPORTING MAIDSTONE MUSIC FESTIVAL mmf


AIMS OF THE FESTIVAL

Maidstone Music Festival provides a friendly and supportive platform for amateur musicians, of all ages and abilities, to share in the excitement of making music. The competitive element is minimised in order to encourage performers to learn from one another. This educational festival, a non-profit organisation wherein the committee and additional staff all work entirely voluntarily, aims to promote a prestigious annual event giving pleasure and real value to performers and listeners alike.


THE FUTURE OF THE FESTIVAL WILL DEPEND ON FINANCIAL SUPPORT

Maidstone Music Festival is affiliated to the British and International Federation of Festivals for Music, Dance and Speech, and we intend to seek charitable status. We will continue to seek funding from various bodies, and sponsorship from private sector organisations, but we would like also to encourage the help of individuals for whom amateur music-making is close to the heart. Please consider supporting the Festival financially; three ways are open to you:


Make a donation

Make a legacy

Become a 'Friend'


FRIENDS OF MAIDSTONE MUSIC FESTIVAL

In return for a minimum lifetime donation of £250, or a minimum annual donation of £15, Friends of Maidstone Music Festival are entitled to unlimited audience entry to classes, free programmes, a guaranteed seat and programme for the concert, an annual newsletter and an acknowledgement in the programmes.


REGISTER YOUR INTEREST NOW

If you would like to know more about donations, legacies or Friends, please contact me via the comments facility below.

Maidstone Music Festival


Maidstone Music Festival is now in its fourth year, being an annual event which has become a useful and enjoyable addition to pre-existing opportunities for amateur musicians in the Maidstone area of Kent.

My wife, Sue, taught piano in Maidstone for many years and she always thought it ridiculous that the county town of Kent was one of the few large towns lacking its own educative festival for amateur musicians. Many other music teachers she knew felt the same way, and so it is for this reason that in 2007 she decided to organise one herself. The inaugural festival, mmf08, took place at the end of November 2008 and was very well received by participants, adjudicators and sponsors. The festival was also visited by a representative of the British and International Federation of Festivals for Music, Dance and Speech, and received praising comments; our festival became affiliated to the Federation shortly afterwards.


This festival is different from anything that previously occurred in Maidstone in that, like many festivals elsewhere, it provides opportunities for amateur musicians of all ages and levels of ability to perform individually to an audience and to receive educative adjudication from highly qualified musicians. All entrants are awarded a certificate, classified according to merit, and a personal written adjudication on their performance. The element of competition is kept to a minimum in order to encourage performers to learn from one another. There are both competitive and non-competitive classes, and the festival provides a friendly and supportive platform for musicians to share in the excitement of making music. Maidstone Music Festival, a non-profit organisation, now promotes a prestigious annual event which gives pleasure and real value to performers and listeners alike, and the most frequently heard comments from participants are that they had found our festival not only educative but also entertaining and great fun!


Encouraged by our initial success, we expanded the scope of the festival by adding categories - Plucked Strings; Accordion, Concertina, Harmonica; and Mixed Ensembles – to those of Piano, Bowed strings, Woodwind/Brass/Recorders, and Singing, and also by extending the range of classes. This year we are introducing, among other things, non-competitive classes for family ensembles within each category. In common with similar festivals, however, we have had disappointingly few entries from players of wind instruments and we are at pains to do what we can to stimulate greater interest.


Maidstone Music Festival 2011 will be held at Invicta Grammar School on the weekend of 26/27 November, 2011, with a concert on the evening of Saturday 3 December.

Wednesday, 18 February 2009

Mary Ansell's Deception and J. M. Barrie's play, Rosalind

In my book 'It Might Have Been Raining', which I published in 2005, I revealed for the first time that official records showed that the Victorian London stage actress Mary Ansell continually deceived people, perhaps even her husband, author and playwright J. M. Barrie, about her age.



I also indicated briefly how Barrie made use of this deception in the writing of his play Rosalind within three years of his divorce from Mary.

Now, the recent release of the England census for 1911 has enabled me to augment the details of Mary's deception, and has prompted me to write this piece.

First, a background by way of a Mary Ansell timeline:

1861, March 1: Mary Ansell is born*. Here is her birth certificate:



1861 census: Mary's age correctly stated as one month.

1871 census: Mary's age correctly stated as 10 years.

1881 census: Mary's age correctly stated as 20 years.

1891 census: (I couldn't find an entry for Mary).




1891: Mary meets J. M. Barrie. Her real age is 31.

1892: Mary is given her first part in one of Barrie's, Walker, London.




1894, July 9: Mary marries J. M. Barrie. Marriage certificate incorrectly states her age as 27. Her real age is 33. (Difference: 6 years).





1901 census: Mary's age incorrectly stated as 34. Her real age is 40. (Difference: 6 years).

1908, August: Mary meets Gilbert Cannan, an aspiring young writer, appointed as secretary to Barrie's Committee campaigning for the abolition of the Censor.



1909, October 13: Mary and J. M. Barrie divorce hearing; Decree nisi granted as a result of Mary's adultery with Cannan. (Decree absolute granted in April 1910).

1910, April 28: Mary marries Gilbert Cannan. Marriage certificate states her age as 41. Her real age is 49. (Difference: 8 years).


From this information we can see that, in common with many actresses, at some time during her twenties or early thirties Mary Ansell had decided to 'reduce' her age so as to remain in her twenties for as long as possible in order to prolong her prospects of securing acting roles on the stage. Further, we may conclude that, having possibly deceived Barrie from the time of their meeting in 1892 to the time of their marriage - and presumably having successfully deceived Barrie's minister uncle, David Ogilvy, who officiated at the marriage - Mary chose to maintain the 6-year difference throughout their marriage.

Many biographies of Barrie, and articles, talk about him falling for, and marrying, the lovely young actress, implying that everybody believed that Mary was at least a few years younger than him, but, with Barrie having been born on 9th May, 1860, the age difference was actually only nine months (as was known at least by Barrie's friend and biographer, Denis Mackail).

Their marriage ended in divorce in October 1909 following the discovery of Mary's adultery with Gilbert Cannan, a man who had come into the Barries' life in 1908 when aged just 23.

The occasion of her second marriage gave Mary an opportunity to shed a couple more years, although her reason for doing this seems unclear, for she had given up the stage upon marrying Barrie sixteen years earlier. In my book, I suggested that she may have done this to deceive Cannan into believing that there was a prospect of their having at least one child, for Cannan was only 25 when they married.


And, now, an addition to Mary's timeline:

1911 census: Mary's age incorrectly stated as 40. Her real age is 50. (Difference: 10 years).



It will be another ten years before the 1921 census will show whether Mary continued to shed years, but time may have caught up with her, and we know that Mary bore Cannan no children, and that she divorced him in 1918 following his adultery with Gwen Wilson.



I contend that J. M. Barrie either knew Mary's real age from the outset - in which case he must have been content to allow false information to be entered on their marriage certificate as well as on the 1901 census return - or, more likely in my view, he discovered it at some stage during their marriage, or soon afterwards.



It is well-known that Barrie frequently used personal knowledge or experience of events close to him as the inspiration for his fictional works, and, with the benefit of hindsight and research, we can identify people in his life veiled in some of his fictional characters. In 1912 it seems he put both Mary's age deception and her relationship with Cannan to good use when he wrote his play Rosalind. I am not aware of anybody else coming to this conclusion but there clues are there:

In the lead role, Mrs Beatrice Page, a woman of London well into her forties and an actress, is lodging at a seaside cottage and is about to be asked to return to London to play once more the part of Rosalind, a young woman, in Shakespeare's As You Like It. There are numerous references to middle-age, and Mrs Page makes various comments concerning age, such as: "... you should never, never ask an actress's age", and "Have you noticed there are no parts in them (plays) for middle-aged ladies?"

Charles Roche, a well-educated young man, aged - yes - 23, calls at the cottage quite by chance and recognizes a picture of a young-looking woman, a woman by whom he had been recently smitten. The woman is Beatrice, made-up and in her performance as Rosalind. Charles is initially led to believe that Mrs Page is Beatrice's mother, and Mrs Page speaks to him as if she were, but, after having actresses' age deceptions explained to him, as in these telling lines: -
"There is nothing for them between the ages of twenty-nine and sixty. Occasionally one of the less experienced dramatists may write such a part, but with a little coaxing we can always make him say, 'She needn't be more than twenty-nine.' And so, dear Charles, we have succeeded in keeping middle-age for women off the stage. Why, even Father Time doesn't let on about us. He waits at the wings with a dark cloth for us, just as our dressers wait with dust-sheets to fling over our expensive frocks; but but we have a way with us that makes even Father Time reluctant to cast his cloak; perhaps it is the coquettish imploring look we give him as we dodge him; perhaps though he is an old fellow he can't resist the powder on our pretty noses. And so he says, 'The enchanting baggage, I'll give her another year.' When you come to write my epitaph, Charles, let it be in these delicious words, 'She had a long twenty-nine.'" - Charles comes to accept that Mrs Page and Beatrice are really one and the same person, falls in love with her, proposes to her, and the two go off happily to London.


In real life, in August 1908, on the day after he had met Mary Barrie, and at age 23, Gilbert Cannan had written to sculptress Kathleen Bruce: '... Mrs Barrie suddenly began to talk to me like a mother. She really is a dear thing, and she seems to need a good deal of me - I feel the need and give - gladly.'

It is surely no coincidence, either, that Barrie chose Beatrice as the name of the character in his play, for, in the light of his play and his knowledge of his former wife, it is interesting to compare and contrast the characters of Shakespeare's comedic heroines: Rosalind, in As You Like It, and Beatrice in Much Ado About Nothing. (See here, for example)

Barrie's Rosalind is doubly interesting because not only does the play seem to reveal that, by the time of its creation, the playwright knew that Mary had deceived both him and Cannan over her age, but also it was amazingly prophetic: At one point in the play we are told that Beatrice is at Monte Carlo, “a place where people gamble,” and later we learn that she was supposed to be spending a month in Biarritz. How strange that in February 1921, nine years after the play was written, D. H. Lawrence* should write to Mary Cannan, by then his friend of about five years, expressing disapproval of her gambling and advising her that she should not let it become a habit. Strange, also, that some time around 1925 Mary should leave England permanently to live the rest of her life in Biarritz!

Finally, it seems Mary deceived the authorities even in death. She died in Biarritz on 30th June, 1950. Her death certificate** gives the year of her birth incorrectly as 1st March 1869, not 1861. She had evidently continued to live the lie and had deceived those close to her late in her life, for Barrie had long predeceased her, Cannan had had a mental breakdown in 1923 and had spent the rest of his life in mental hospitals, and no adult contact with her three brothers seems to have been evident.


* Nottingham University's collection of D. H. Lawrence letters has reference to Mary Cannan's birth year erroneously as 1867, seemingly matching Mary's 6-year age discrepancy throughout the duration of her marriage to J. M. Barrie. My attempts to persuade Nottingham University to correct their mistake have failed.

** A scan of Mary Cannan's death certificate was kindly supplied by my friend Céline-Albin Faivre, leading French authority on J. M. Barrie and published translator of Barrie's The Little White Bird: Le Petit Oiseau blanc (Terre de Brume, 2006), website: www.sirjmbarrie.com

I gratefully acknowledge reference to the mine of information that is Andrew Birkin's exhaustive study of J. M. Barrie: J. M. Barrie and the Lost Boys (Constable and Company, 1979; Yale University Press, 2003), and his splendid website: www.jmbarrie.co.uk
Also Denis Mackail's The Story of J.M.B. (Peter Davies, 1941).

Monday, 23 June 2008

The Maidstone Music Festival Syllabus is now available

The Syllabus for our inaugural festival - mmf 08 - is now available.

In the week beginning 16 June we distributed over 200 copies to music teachers and schools in Maidstone and the surrounding area, and also to music directors and other interested people. Copies are also available to the public at selected locations, and from the Festival Secretary (ie. me).





The booklet contains a detachable Entry Form, and all entries for the Festival must be received by the Festival Secretary by 13 October.

The Syllabus and the Entry Form are also accessible via the Festival website.